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Dublin Core Metadata
Dariusz Kogut IT/WO
Core Metadata Workshop Series began in 1995 with an invitational workshop
which brought together librarians, digital library researchers, content
experts, and text-markup experts to promote better discovery standards
for electronic resources. The Dublin Core is a 15-element set of
descriptors that has emerged from this effort in interdisciplinary and
international consensus building.
The goals that motivate the Dublin Core effort are:
- Simplicity of creation and maintenance
- Commonly understood semantics
- Conformance to existing and
- International scope and applicability
- Interoperability among collections
and indexing systems
Finding relevant information
on the World Wide Web has become increasingly problematic due to the explosive
growth of networked resources.
The Dublin Core is a metadata element set
intended to facilitate discovery of electronic resources.
See : RFC
Dublin Core Metadata site
Following is the reference description of the Dublin Core Metadata
Element Set. Note that element have a descriptive name intended to
convey a common semantic understanding of the element.
A formal single-word label (expressed in all upper case)
is specified to make the syntactic specification
of elements simpler for encoding schemes.
The name given to the resource by the CREATOR
Author or Creator
The person or organization primarily responsible
for creating the intellectual content of the resource. For example, authors
in the case of written documents, artists, photographers,
or illustrators in the case of visual resources.
Subject and Keywords
The topic of the resource. Typically, subject
will be expressed as keywords or phrases that describe the subject or content
of the resource. The use of controlled vocabularies
and formal classification schemas is encouraged.
A textual description of the content of the resource,
including abstracts in the case of document-like objects or content descriptions in the case of visual resources.
The entity responsible for making the resource
available in its present form, such as a publishing house, a university department, or a corporate entity.
A person or organization not specified in a CREATOR
element who has made significant intellectual contributions to the resource but whose contribution is secondary
to any person or organization specified in a CREATOR element (for
example, editor, transcriber, and illustrator).
The date the resource was made available in its
present form. Recommended best practice is an 8 digit number in the form YYYY-MM-DD as defined in http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime
, a profile of ISO 8601.
The category of the resource, such as home page,
novel, poem, working paper, technical report, essay, dictionary. For the sake of interoperability, TYPE should be selected
from an enumerated list that is under development in the workshop series
at the time of publication of this document. See
the "Dublin Core Resource Type and Format Working Group"
page for current thinking on the application of this element.
The data format of the resource, used to identify
the software and possibly hardware that might be needed to display or operate the resource. For the sake of interoperability,
FORMAT should be selected from an enumerated list
(still under development in the workshop series at the time
of publication of this document).
String or number used to uniquely identify the
resource. Examples for networked resources include URLs and URNs (when implemented). Other globally-unique identifiers, such
as International Standard Book Numbers (ISBN) or other formal names would also be candidates for this element in
the case of off-line resources.
A string or number used to uniquely identify
the work from which this resource was derived, if applicable. For example,
a PDF version of a novel might have a SOURCE
element containing an ISBN number for the physical book from which the
PDF version was derived.
Language(s) of the intellectual content of the
resource. Where practical, the content of this field should coincide with
The relationship of this resource to other resources.
The intent of this element is to provide a means to express relationships among resources that have formal relationships
to others, but exist as discrete resources themselves. For example, images
in a document, chapters in a book, or items in a
collection. Formal specification of RELATION is currently under
development. Users and developers should understand that use
of this element is currently considered to be experimental.
The spatial and/or temporal characteristics of
the resource. Formal specification of COVERAGE is currently under development. Users and developers should understand
that use of this element is currently considered to be experimental.
A link to a copyright notice, to a rights-management
statement, or to a service that would provide information about terms of access to the resource. Formal specification
of RIGHTS is currently under development. Users and developers should understand that use of this element is currently
considered to be experimental.
The metadata elements fall into three groups which roughly indicate
the class or scope of information stored in them:
elements related mainly to the Content of the resource
elements related mainly to the resource when viewed as Intellectual
elements related mainly to the Instantiation of the resource.
|| Although some environments, such as
HTML, are not case-sensitive, it is recommended best practice always to adhere to the case conventions in the element labels given below to avoid conflicts in
the event that the metadata is subsequently extracted or converted
to a case-sensitive environment, such as XML (EXtensible Markup
Each element is optional and repeatable. Metadata
elements may appear in any order. The ordering of multiple occurrences
of the same element (e.g., Creator) may have a significance intended
by the provider, but ordering is not guaranteed to be preserved
in every system.
||<meta name="DC.Subject" content="dublin core
metadata element set">
<meta name="DC.Subject" content="networked object description">
<meta name="DC.Publisher" content="OCLC Online Computer Library
<meta name="DC.Creator" content="Weibel, Stuart L., email@example.com.">
<meta name="DC.Creator" content="Miller, Eric J., firstname.lastname@example.org.">
<meta name="DC.Title" content="Dublin Core Element Set Reference
<meta name="DC.Date" content="1996-05-28">
<meta name="DC.Form" scheme="IMT" content="text/html">
<meta name="DC.Language" scheme="ISO639" content="en">
<meta name="DC.Identifier" scheme="URL"
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Last Updated on December 14th, 1998 at 16:29:16
Copyright © CERN 1998 -- European Laboratory for Particle Physics